Rectal Diseases (Proctology)
(Update: ) - Digestive System Diseases
Anal diseases It covers situations in the opening (ie anus and rectum) area where the digestive system ends and leaves the body. The anus begins at the bottom of the rectum, the last part of the colon (large intestine). Anorectal (Dentat) line separates the anus from the rectum. Hard tissue called fascia surrounds the anus and connects it to nearby structures.
The circular muscles of the external breech ring (called the external anal sphincter ani) form and hold the anus wall closed. The glands secrete fluid into the anus to keep its surface moist.
A plate-like band of muscle called the levator ani muscles surrounds the anus and forms the floor of the pelvis. A network of veins lines the skin of the anus.
What are the diseases that occur in the anus?
- Hemorrhoids: Swollen veins in the anus or rectum.
- Anal cancer: Anus cancer is rare. Human papilloma virus (HPV), anal sex, and multiple sexual partners increase the risk of infection.
- Anal herpes: Anal sex can spread the HSV-1 and HSV-2 herpes viruses. Symptoms include painful sores around the anus that come and go.
- Anal warts: Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection can cause warts in and around the anus.
- Anal fistula: An abnormal channel that develops between the anus and the hip skin.
- Inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's Disease ve ulcerative colitis) or previous surgeries are common causes.
- Anal fissure: A painful tear in the lining of the anus, usually caused by constipation.
- Anal abscess: A pocket of infection in the soft tissue around the anus. Antibiotics and surgical drainage may be required to effectively treat an anus abscess.
- Anal itching (pruritus sudden): Itching in or around the anus is a common problem. In most cases, no serious cause is responsible.
- Proctalgia fugax: Sudden, severe pain in the anus and rectum area, lasts for seconds or minutes, then disappears. The cause is unknown.
- Constipation: Difficulty passing stools is common and can cause anal pain, anal fissures, and bleeding from hemorrhoids.
- Anal bleeding (hematochezia, hematochezia): Bright red blood from the anus sometimes comes from hemorrhoids, but requires evaluation to rule out a more serious cause.
- Stool Incontinence (Fecal Incontinence)
Anus Tests for Rectal Diseases
- Physical exam: In this situation, a doctor may examine the outside of the anus and perform a gloved finger exam (digital Rectal Touch RT) to feel abnormal areas inside the anus.
- Sigmoidoscopy: An endoscope (flexible tube with a lighted camera at its end) is inserted into the anus and inside the colon is viewed. Sigmoidoscopy can only reach a part of the colon to view.
- Colonoscopy: An endoscope is placed in the anus and the entire colon is examined.
- Fistulography (fistulogram): A fluid that helps improve image contrast is injected into an abnormal opening in or near the anus and X-ray films are taken. Fistulography can detect an abnormal connection (fistula) between the anus and the skin.
- MR and CT Contrast films
Rectal Diseases Treatments
- Antibiotics: These can be used to fight anus infections caused by bacteria.
- Antiviral drugs: Drugs such as acyclovir (Zovirax), famciclovir (Famvir), and valaciclovir (Valtrex) are used to treat anal infections caused by HSV-1 and HSV-2 herpes viruses.
- Incision and drainage: Severe skin infections (abscesses) in or around the anus may require this surgical procedure to drain the infected fluid.
- Anus surgery: Anus cancer, anal warts, abscess, or fistula may require surgery to correct the problem.
- Anal wart treatments: can use surgery, freezing (cryotherapy), a laser or heat probe, or other treatments to remove warts from the anus.
- Stool softeners: Constipation can cause hard stools and painful bowel movements.
- Fiber: Increasing fiber in the diet or taking fiber supplements can increase constipation and reduce bleeding from hemorrhoids.
- Hemorrhoid cream: Over-the-counter or prescription topical medications can relieve itching and discomfort caused by hemorrhoids.
- Hemorrhoid taping: ties rubber bands around external hemorrhoids, causing the tissue to slowly die and fall off.
- Hemorrhoid procedures: to eliminate hemorrhoids and reduce symptoms laser hemorrhoid treatment, heat probe, injections or other treatment may be used.
- Steroid cream: Itching in the anus can often respond to creams containing hydrocortisone or a similar steroid drug.