Dr. Ertan Beyatlı

What is a ganglion and how is it treated?

(Update: ) - Skin and soft tissue diseases

Ganglion It is a cystic formation filled with jelly or gel. It is usually seen in areas of the body where joints or tendons are located; eg wrist, ankle and elbow.

Cysts usually have a connection point to joints or tendons (just like an inflated balloon). painless ve is soft.

What are Ganglion Symptoms

Ganglion Symptoms

Prominent and well-circumscribed swelling in the joint alignment of the patients is often mobile and soft, but ganglia frequently exposed to infection or trauma may be immobile and hard. These cysts are often painless and harmless, but the growing ganglia areTendon - hard tissue that connects muscles to bones) may restrict its movement over time.


Hippocrates described the ganglia as "tissue nodes containing mucoid flesh." Since this definition, several hypotheses have been proposed, including:

  • Synovial herniation or rupture from the tendon sheath (Hands, 1746)
  • Synovial dermoid or resting due to "arthrogenesis blastoma cell nests" or embryonic periarticular tissue (Hoeftman, 1876)
  • New growth from synovial membranes (Henle, 1847)
  • Bursa or modification of degenerative cysts (Vogt, 1881)

Presented by Ledderhose in 1893 Mucoid Degeneration his theory has gained wide acceptance. But Green replaced this theory with a theory based on microtrauma and hyaluronic acid production. The second theory suggested that local tissue trauma or irritation caused the production of hyaluronic acid at the synovial-capsular interface. Hyaluronic acid forms small mucin lakes that merge with the stems or ganglia into subcutaneous cysts.

Diagnosis and Diagnostic method of ganglia

Generally, a physical examination by a doctor is sufficient for a diagnosis. Painless, smooth and well-circumscribed, mobile and slippery lesions at the joint level. In doubtful cases, superficial tissue USG (ultrasound) can be performed.

What is Ganglion Treatment?

To drain with a needle (Ganglion Puncture)
To drain with a needle (Ganglion Puncture)

Some small ganglia (<1.5 cm) may disappear spontaneously over time. Therefore, in such cases, it is sufficient to follow up. For larger cysts, it can be evacuated with the help of a syringe (medical needle). This process is called "puncture". Recurrence can be seen in 50% of these patients.

Large ganglia, recurrent ganglia after puncture, causing pain and restricting joint movement ganglia and in doubtful cases, surgical option may be considered. Ganglia are completely removed with surgical intervention (excisional biopsy). This process local anesthesia can be done with. Despite surgical excision, the chance of recurrence is 1-2%.

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