Dr. Ertan Beyatlı

What is edema and how does it occur?

(Update: ) - Skin and soft tissue diseases

Edema is especially a swelling due to fluid accumulation on the skin. This condition usually occurs in your legs, ankles, or feet. However, on your hands, face or anywhere on the body it could also be ⊕

You will often hear words like these; edema occurred in my arm, swelling in my feet, edema was seen in films, edema in the abdomen, edema developed in my fingers, etc. Yes, as you can imagine, the topic of this article is "Payment" 🙂

Let's see what is this situation, what are its causes and how we should approach this situation.

What is edema?

What causes edema?

There are many different types and causes, and this is usually a symptom of another condition.

  • Diseases. Serious illnesses that can cause include:
    • heart failure
    • kidney disease
    • liver problems, such as cirrhosis
    • thyroid diseases, goiter, Myxedema comic
    • may not be clots, such as DVT
    • infections
    • allergic reactions
  • Medicines. Medicines prescribed for some diseases can cause edema:
    • High blood pressure (Hypertension) - Anti-hypertensive drugs
    • Diabetes (diabetes)
    • Pain - Pain relievers, analgesic
    • inflammation - anti-inflammatory drugs
  • Other reasons.
    • Vascular damage, such as varicose veins in the leg or pelvic varices
    • Lymph damage, such as Lymphedema that occurs when lymph nodes are removed
    • Diet, diets containing too much salt (Sodium Na)
    • Inactivity, such as sitting or standing for a long time


Symptoms depend on the underlying cause, but swelling, tightness, and pain are common.

Patients can see:

Why does edema occur?
In this photo, the foot formed after the finger is pressed is seen. The medical name for this is "Pitting Edema".
  • swollen, stretched, and shiny skin
  • Skin holding the pitting after pressing for a few seconds (pitting edema)
  • swelling of the ankles, face, or eyes
  • aching body parts and stiff joints
  • weight gain or loss
  • plump hand and neck veins
  • high heart rate and blood pressure
  • headache
  • stomach pain
  • changes in bowel habits (constipation or diarrhea)
  • nausea and vomiting
  • confusion and lethargy
  • visual abnormalities

Symptoms depend on the underlying cause, type of edema, and location.

Types of Edema

There are many types of edema. Each of them can indicate a range of other health conditions. Here are some types.

External edema (Peripheral edema)

It is the most common form. This affects the ankles, legs, hands, and arms. Symptoms include swelling and difficulty moving part of the body.

Pulmonary edema (Pulmonary Edema)

Excessive fluid buildup in the lungs makes breathing difficult. This can be caused by congestive heart failure or acute lung injury. It is a serious situationcan be a medical emergency and cause respiratory failure and death.

Brain edema (Cerebral edema)

This happens in the brain. Many potentially life-threatening It can happen for various reasons. Symptoms include headache, neck pain or stiffness, complete or partial loss of vision, changes in consciousness or mental state, nausea, vomiting, and dizziness.

Eye fundus edema (Macular edema)

This is diabetic retinopathy is a serious complication. Swelling occurs in the macula, the part of the eye that provides detailed and central vision. The person may notice changes in their central vision and in how they see colors.

Edema can occur elsewhere, but the ones mentioned above are the most common. It can indicate one of many serious health conditions.

If you are worried about any swelling, it is important to consult a doctor.

when should i get help?

If edema suddenly develops during pregnancy, call your doctor right away. This could be a sign of complication. (Preeclampsia, Eclampsia)

Always seek emergency help if you have trouble breathing. A serious medical condition in which the lung cavities fill with fluid pulmonary edema may be a symptom.

How is edema treated?

The cause must be determined first, because treatment varies depending on the cause. Transient edema can often be improved by reducing your salt intake and keeping your legs up while sitting.

Home treatment

There are a few things you can try:

  • Avoiding foods that are high in salt, packaged and processed, eat healthy foods.
  • Have a moderate dose to help prevent swelling due to inactivity exercise.
  • Tobacco ve from alcohol stay away.
  • Support stockings get dressed.
  • Acupuncture or masaj try.
  • keeping the swollen area high (elevation)
  • Can lower blood pressure and help relieve edema associated with varicose veins and poor vascular function grape seed extract use.

Medical treatment

Some suggestions you can get for specific conditions or situations:

  • Pregnancy. A significant accumulation of fluid can be dangerous and needs to be properly diagnosed.
  • Heart failure. Diuretics can be used with other drugs that improve heart function.
  • Cirrhosis. Eliminating all alcohol, reducing salt, and using diuretics can improve symptoms.
  • Lymphedema. Diuretics can help with an early start. Compression stockings or cuffs may also be helpful.
  • Depends on medication. Diuretics don't work in these situations. Your medication may need to be changed or discontinued.

Your edema is sudden, worsening, painful, new, or related to chest pain or shortness of breath. immediate medical attention get it.

Can edema be prevented?

As much as possible to prevent edema:

  • physically active thick
  • on your diet Avoid excessive salt (Sodium Na)
  • follow your doctor's orders regarding any condition that causes edema

Beneficiary Source: Healthline Translation and Prepared by: Ertan BEYATLI, MD, PhD